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    Obesity in america


    obesity in america

    One-third of American adults and one in six children are now obese, although an annual report released Thursday found that rates could be. More than one billion adults across the globe are overweight, This column argues that the obesity epidemic in the US has been creeping. Studies done by CDC shows that 31.8% of US adults are overweight and another 40% of Americans are obese. This isn't about body image issues.

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    Fast food, Fat profits: Obesity in America - Fault Lines

    About 42% of American adults had obesity in 2017-2018, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data showed.

    Among adults ages 20 and older, 42.4% were identified as having a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher, while 9.2% had severe obesity, defined as a BMI of 40 or higher, reported Cheryl Fryar, MSPH, of the National Center for Health Statistics in Hyattsville, Maryland, and colleagues.

    Another 30.7% of American adults were overweight, with a BMI of 25 to 29.9.

    When the results were stratified by age, adults 40 to 59 saw the highest rates of obesity, with 45% of this age group with a BMI chase auto loan approval 30 or higher. Middle-aged men had the highest prevalence of obesity, at a rate of 46%.

    Not surprisingly, the rates of obesity also varied according to ethnicity.

    Most notably, non-Hispanic Asian Americans consistently and overwhelmingly had the lowest rates of obesity, with only 18% and 17% of Asian men and women having a BMI over 30 in the most recent survey period.

    On the other hand, Mexican American adults had some of the highest rates, with 51% of men and 50% of women with obesity. Similarly, 41% of non-Hispanic Black men had obesity, as did 57% of Black adult women.

    "Although BMI is widely used as a measure of body fat, at a given BMI level, body fat may vary by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin," Fryar's group wrote. "In particular, research suggests that health risks may begin at a lower BMI among Asian persons compared with others."

    The current prevalence of obesity in the U.S. is in stark contrast to what the nation looked like several decades ago.

    In national data from the survey period of 1960-1962, only about 13.4% of adults had obesity and less than 1% had severe obesity. And during that same survey period, about 31.5% of American adults were considered overweight.

    From the early 1960s to today, however, the rates of obesity steadily increased each decade, doubling from 15% in 1976-1980 to 30.9% in 1999-2000.

    But since the turn of the century, the rise in obesity rates seemed to slow down a bit despite still increasing. For example, the only times that obesity rates actually fell in the past 60 years was in 2007-2008 and again in 2011-2012.

    Regarding children, the researchers found that 19.3% of Americans ages 2-19 had obesity, defined as a BMI at or above the 95th percentile on the growth chart. This included about 6.1% of kids who were identified as having severe obesity, measured as a BMI at or above 120% of the 95th percentile.

    In addition to this, another 16.1% of U.S. children were overweight during the 2017-2018 survey period, defined as at or above the 85th percentile on the sex-specific BMI-for-age growth chart.

    At this time, the rates of obesity were highest among teens: 21% of those ages 12-19 had obesity, with the rates for teen boys slightly higher than for teen girls (23% vs 20%).

    Similar to in adults, the obesity rates followed similar ethnic patterns among kids. As for boys, the highest rates of obesity were seen among those of Mexican American (29%) and Hispanic (28%) descent, whereas for girls, the highest rates of obesity were among Black (29%) and Mexican American (25%) children and adolescents.

    Again similar to the situation in adults, obesity in American kids followed a trajectory over the past several decades. In the 1971-1974 survey period, only 5% of U.S. kids had obesity, with only 1% of this subset having severe obesity; only 10% of kids were then overweight.

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      Kristen Monaco is a staff writer, focusing on endocrinology, psychiatry, and nephrology news. Based out of the New York City office, she’s worked at the company since 2015.

    Источник: https://www.medpagetoday.com/primarycare/obesity/90142

    Learn The Facts

    "The physical and emotional health of an entire generation and the economic health and security of our nation is at stake."

    - First Lady Michelle Obama at the Let’s Move! launch on February 9, 2010

    Obesity by the numbers

    Over the past three decades, childhood obesity rates in America have tripled, and today, nearly one in three children in America are overweight or obesity in america. The numbers are even higher in African American and Hispanic communities, where nearly 40% of the children are overweight or obese. If we don't solve this problem, one third of all children born in 2000 or later will suffer from diabetes at some point in their lives. Many others will face chronic obesity-related health problems like heart disease, high blood pressure, cancer, and asthma.

    How Did We Get Here?

    Thirty years ago, most people led lives that kept them at a healthy weight. Kids walked to and from school every day, ran around at recess, participated in gym class, and played for hours after school before dinner. Meals were home-cooked with reasonable portion sizes and there was always a vegetable on the plate. Eating fast food was rare and snacking between meals was an occasional treat.

    Today, children experience a very different lifestyle. Walks to and from school have been replaced by car and bus rides. Gym class and after-school sports have been cut; afternoons are now spent with TV, video games, and the internet. Parents are busier than ever and families eat fewer home-cooked meals. Snacking between meals is now commonplace.

    Thirty years ago, kids ate just one snack a day, whereas now they are trending toward three obesity in america, resulting in an additional 200 calories a day. And one in five school-age children has up to six snacks a day.

    Portion sizes have also exploded- they are now two to five times bigger than they were in years past. Beverage portions have grown as well- in the mid-1970s, the average sugar-sweetened beverage was 13.6 ounces compared totoday, kids think nothing of drinking 20 ounces of sugar-sweetened beverages at a time.

    In total, we are now eating 31 percent more calories than we were forty years ago–including 56 percent more fats and oils and 14 percent more sugars and sweeteners. The average American now eats fifteen more pounds of sugar a year than in 1970.

    Eight to 18-year old adolescents spend an average of 7.5 hours a day using entertainment media, including, TV, computers, video games, cell phones and movies, and only one-third of high school students get the recommended levels of physical activity.

    Now that’s the bad news. The mountain america mortgage rates news is that by making just a few lifestyle changes, we can help our children lead healthier lives–and we already have the tools we need to do it. We just need the will.

    Let’s Move!

    Let’s Move! is a comprehensive initiative, launched by the First Lady, dedicated to solving the challenge of childhood obesity within a generation, so that children born today will grow up healthier and able to pursue their dreams. Combining comprehensive strategies with common sense, Let's Move! is about putting children on the path to a healthy future during their earliest months and years. Giving parents helpful information and fostering environments that support healthy choices. Providing healthier foods in our schools. Ensuring that every family has access to healthy, affordable food. And, helping kids become more physically active.

    Everyone has a role to play in reducing childhood obesity, including parents, elected officials from all levels of government, schools, health care professionals, faith-based and community-based organizations, and private sector companies. Your involvement is wells fargo bank branch locations near me to ensuring a healthy future for our children.

    Источник: https://letsmove.obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/learn-facts/epidemic-childhood-obesity

    Facts About Childhood Obesity

    Support Partnership for a Healthier America's work by making a donation. PHA was created to eliminate the nation’s childhood obesity crisis that is preventing many of our children from having a healthy future. While we have seen progress among preschool age children, we continue to face an enormous challenge: Approximately 17 percent of U.S. youth have obesity, and nearly one in three children and adolescents are either overweight or have obesity.

    No one is immune to the risk of growing up at an unhealthy weight. Childhood obesity cuts across all communities and all categories of race, ethnicity, and family income. Alarmingly, the obesity problem strikes at an early age, with researchers estimating a staggering 9.4 percent of children ages 2 to 5 already have obesity. The obesity rate for children ages 6 to 11 has also more than quadrupled during the past 40 years – from 4.2 to 17.4 percent – as well as tripled for adolescents ages 12 to 19, climbing from 4.6 to 20.6 percent, according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Not only do childhood health costs exacerbate the problem, it’s worth noting that many weight-related health issues can turn into chronic conditions (such as diabetes and heart disease) as children grow older and dramatically cut short their life expectancy.

    The Partnership for a Healthier America (PHA) is devoted to working with the private sector to ensure the health of our nation’s youth by solving the childhood obesity crisis. In fact, this crisis marks the first time in our history that a generation of American children may face a shorter expected lifespan than their parents. Recent research finds those most affected are lower-income individuals, African-American, Latinos, American Indians and those living in the southern part of the United States. Many live in communities with half as many supermarkets as wealthier neighborhoods. Communities with high levels of poverty are also significantly less likely to have safe places for children to play.

    Key Facts:

    • In 2011-2014, 24.4 percent of African-American adolescent girls aarp chase credit card login obese.
    • Black and Latino youths have substantially higher rates of overweight and obesity than do their White peers. In 2011 and 2012, 22 percent of Latino children and 20 percent of black children had obesity compared to 14 percent of white children.
    • An overweight adolescent has a 70 percent chance of becoming an overweight or obese adult.
    • 6- to 8-year-olds with obesity are approximately 10 times more likely to become obese adults than those with a lower body mass index.
    • A third of the children born in 2000 in this country will develop diabetes during their lifetime.
    • Since 1980, the obesity prevalence among children and adolescents has almost tripled.
    • More than one in four 17- to 24-year-olds in the United States are now too heavy to serve in the military, a development that retired military leaders say endangers national security.
    • Children with obesity are already demonstrating cardiovascular risk factors typically not seen until adulthood.
    • Children and adolescents with obesity have a greater risk of social and psychological problems, such as discrimination and poor self-esteem, which can continue into adulthood.
    • Children with weight issues are more likely to miss school and repeat a grade than children who are at a healthy weight.
    • Children with obesity have three times more healthcare expenditures than children at healthy weights, costing an estimated $14 obesity in america every year.
    Источник: https://www.ahealthieramerica.org/articles/facts-about-childhood-obesity-102

    Why are Americans Obese?

    To understand the true size of the American obesity epidemic, we first need to understand what it really means to be overweight. Generally, doctors and nutritionists classify people as either underweight, healthy weight, overweight, or obese. These different classifications are determined by body mass index (BMI), or a measure of body fat based on your height and weight. To get a basic idea, this chart from the CDC approximates what that means for someone who is 5'9" tall.

    Источник: https://www.wvdhhr.org/bph/oehp/obesity/mortality.htm

    It's time to call the American obesity epidemic what it is: An addiction crisis

    In September last year, Purdue Pharma, the manufacturer of the highly addictive painkiller OxyContin, was dissolved and the Sackler family agreed to pay $4.5 billion to end thousands of lawsuits and provide restitution for a public health crisis that has already led to the deaths of more than 500,000 people.  

    By comparison, according to research compiled by the School of Public Health and Health Services, the estimated cost of obesity in the United States is somewhere between $147 billion and $210 billion a year. Individuals bear some of these costs in medical expenses and lost wages, averaging $4,879 for women and $2,646 for men. But the rest is shouldered by employers, insurance companies, and the government. For example, obesity is responsible for $61.8 billion in Medicare and Medicaid spending annually.

    Yet, despite the promoted awareness that obesity is a driving co-morbidity of COVID-19, our rates have only worsened since the pandemic began. A recent study done by the American Psychological Association tells us that in 2018, 42.4 percent of the population was obese. Now it seems that we have hit 50 percent a full nine years earlier than previous predictions. This is not a harmless statistic. According to the NIH, obesity-related illness kills 325,000 Americans every year. Meaning that we are literally eating ourselves to death. But what is it we are eating? It isn’t real food, it is the packaged, highly refined, chemically laden products marketed to us as “food” that are killing us, and will continue to do so until we reframe what is being perpetrated on consumers in terms of addiction.  

    As a formerly obese brain and cognitive scientist, and a recovering addict, I have made the understanding of the impact of processed food on the brain my life’s work. Looking for a weight loss role model in my early 20s, I wanted to understand why accomplished, successful people felt powerless to lose their excess weight and keep it off. What I learned is that established behavioral studies have shown that sugar can be more addictive than cocaine. Meaning that the nucleus accumbens, the seat of reward in the brain, downregulates its receptors to tolerate sugar’s onslaught of stimulation until, in repeated studies, mice willingly sustain strong electric shocks to get their fix — stronger than the ones they’re willing to endure to get cocaine. And it only takes a few weeks of eating the average American daily quantity, 22 teaspoons, for this to happen. Once it does, the brain rewires itself to seek more, relentlessly, regardless of satiety, regardless of the damage to the body. Indefinitely.  

    Personally, I can attest that the data aligns with my own experience. When I stopped using drugs, there was a framework for addiction recovery that I could step into, one that has helped keep me clean for over two decades. Not so for food, because too often science has hidden behind the truism that “we have to eat.” We do. But we don’t have to eat sugar and flour. They are just what is relentlessly marketed to us.  

    In order to feed the troops in World War II, the U.S. government turned to American manufacturing to solve the problem of mechanizing food production and creating meals that could survive unrefrigerated for months. When the war ended, dozens of manufacturers had factories that churned out this product — and no consumer base. So, they went to Madison Avenue and asked for packaged food to be re-branded to American homemakers as something modern and efficient. This messaging was woven into everything from sponsored cartoons, like the "Jetsons," to sponsored shows, like "Bewitched." Once we relinquished the control of our ingredients, our obesity levels began to rise from that point forward.  

    Now that "food" was a mass-produced product, it was a competition to make the tastiest, and yes, most addictive one on the market. These manufacturers knew what they were doing, hiring chemical engineers to continually refine their formula and gradually increasing the sugar in their products until most Americans are eating 30 percent more sugar every day than they did three decades ago. Meanwhile, not only did the manufacturers not seem to care about the health consequences, they sought to suppress them. Concerned about potential bad press, the Sugar Research Foundation sponsored studies by Harvard scientists that were published in the New England Journal of American Medicine in 1967 without any disclosure of the sugar sponsorship. Their findings downplayed the role of sugar in heart disease and highlighted fat, setting us off in the wrong direction for decades.  

    People became increasingly overweight and felt increasingly helpless. The average American tries to lose weight with a paid program 3.5 times a year. But without an addiction framework, these diets leave them essentially trying to “cut back” or “cut down” on using without ever giving their brains the opportunity to heal that consistent abstinence from sugar and flour would bring them. In just two months off sugar my research shows that participants experience reduced hunger, reduced cravings, and increased peace and serenity with food.

    Imagine what the death toll from opioids would be if they had the marketing engine behind them that Big Food does. If they were advertised on every billboard, if addicts were told, “You deserve a break today,” if they could acceptably use in movie theaters, stadiums, and business meetings. That is what food addicts are up against, as well as a society that norms over-consumption and socializes food addiction. To conquer it we must have a system equally as strong in place.

    In recovery, there is an expression that has crossed over into popular culture: The first step is admitting you have a problem. Your problem is that your brain has been rewired to prioritize acquiring that addictive substance over everything, even your own survival. When people are able to begin their weight-loss journey with that same awareness, the results are transformative. But for us to attain that, and begin to reverse the escalating trend, we must call eating ourselves to death what is; addiction.

    Susan Peirce Thompson, PhD is an Adjunct Associate Professor of Brain and Cognitive Sciences at the University of Rochester, a New York Times bestselling author, and an expert in the psychology and neuroscience of weight loss, willpower, and food addiction. She is President of the Institute for Sustainable Weight Loss and Founder and CEO of Bright Line Eating, a company dedicated to helping 1 million people have their “Bright Transformations”—the full physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual change that accompanies healthy, permanent weight loss, by 2025. 

    Источник: https://thehill.com/changing-america/opinion/588022-its-time-to-call-the-american-obesity-epidemic-what-it-is-an
    obesity in america
    obesity in america

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    HeightWeight RangeBMIConsidered
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    203 lbs or more30 or obesity in america for what is driving America's chronic weight problem, there are no definite answers. Scientific studies often reach conflicting conclusions, meaning many theories are out there, but the preponderance of evidence points to the two causes most people already suspect: too much food and too little exercise.

    Bigger Portions

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) reports that the average American ate almost 20% more calories in the year 2000 than they did in 1983, thanks, in part, to a boom in meat consumption. Today, each American puts away an average of 195lbs of meat every year, compared to just 138lbs in the 1950's. Consumption of added fats also shot up by around two thirds over the same period, and grain consumption rose 45% since 1970.

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    Research published by the World Health Organization found that a rise in fast food sales correlated to a rise in body mass index, and Americans are notorious for their fast-food consumption ― such food makes up about 11% of the average American diet. Another study demonstrates the full effect added sugars from soda and energy drinks are wreaking havoc on American waistlines. So it is not just how much we eat, but what we eat.

    Confusing "Diet" for "Nutrition"

    The role of diet in the U.S. obesity epidemic is obviously major, but it's also complex. Consumers are sent wildly mixed messages when it comes to what to eat and how much. One one hand, larger portions, processed packaged food, and drive-thru meals are branded as almost classically American — fast, cheap, filling and delicious. On the other hand, we spend over $20 billion annually on weight loss schemes, from diet books and pills all the way up to last-resort surgeries like lap-bands and liposuction. It's no wonder we're looking for fast food and fast weight loss options, we spend more time at work and less time in our homes and kitchens than our parents did. Sometimes you only have time to pack a leftover pizza slice and a slim-fast for lunch, irony be damned.

    This schizophrenic relationship with food is easy to explain in terms of marketing schemes. As decades of soda and tv dinners caught up with our waistlines, the U.S. diet industry grew bigger, faster and smarter. Since the 1970s, popular nutrition wisdom and fad diets have flamed in and out just as quickly as the Arch Deluxe or the McRib. In the 1990s, our big enemy was fat. Low-fat and fat-free products flew off supermarket shelves. It took us decades to learn that when something is fat-free and full-flavored, it's probably too good to be true.

    As it turns out, most food companies were just swapping hydrogenated oils and sugar in for the animal fats they removed from low-fat products. Hydrogenated oils are restructured vegetable oils that carry high levels of trans-fats, an amazingly evil type of fat that can raise your bad cholesterol, lower your good cholesterol and increase your risks of developing heart disease, stroke and diabetes. While somewhat less sinister, added sugar can also wreak major damage on a diet. Technically low in calories, high-quantities of sugar disrupts our metabolisms, causing surges in insulin and energy levels and ultimately contributing to weight gain and diabetes.

    Inactivity is the New Normal

    Lack of exercise is also a major culprit in the obesity epidemic. It's been decades since most Americans worked in fields and on factory floors, a far greater majority of us are sitting throughout our workday. This means less exercise each day. According to one study, only 20% of today's jobs require at least moderate physical activity, as opposed to 50% of jobs in 1960. Other research suggests Americans burn 120 to 140 fewer calories a day than they did 50 years ago. Add this to the higher amount of calories we are packing in, and we get a perfect recipe for weight gain.

    But lethargy goes well beyond the workplace. It is also how we get to work and what we do after. Americans walk less than people in any other industrialized country, preferring to sit in cars to get around. And at the end of the day, 80% of Americans don't get enough exercise, according to the CDC.

    A number of other factors are thought to play a role in the obesity epidemic, such as the in utero effects of smoking and excessive weight gain in pregnant club america vs cruz azul. Poor sleep, stress, and lower rates of breastfeeding are also thought to contribute to a child's long term obesity risk. Of course, these factors are not explicit or solitary causes of obesity, but they are reliable indicators of the kinds of systemic healthcare failures contributing to this crisis.

    In the end, though, we can't lose sight of the big picture. Over the past years, diet fads have come and gone, with people rushing to blame red meat, dairy, wheat, fat, sugar, etc. for making them fat, but in reality, the problem is much simpler. Genetics and age do strongly influence metabolism, but as the CDC points out, weight gain and loss is primarily a formula of total calories consumed versus total calories used.

    Источник: https://www.publichealth.org/public-awareness/obesity/

    Obesity

    Obesity is most commonly measured using the body mass index (BMI) scale. The World Health Organization define BMI as: “a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used to classify underweight, overweight and obesity in adults.1

    BMI values are used to define whether an individual is considered to be underweight, healthy, overweight or obese. The WHO defines these categories using the cut-off points: an individual with a BMI between 25.0 and 30.0 is considered to be ‘overweight’; a BMI greater than 30.0 is defined as ‘obese’.2

    Related research entries

    Food per person – food availability has increased significantly in most countries across the world. How does the supply of calories, protein and fats vary between countries? How has this changed over time?

    Hunger and Undernourishment – obesity rates have now overtaken hunger rates globally. But it remains the case that high levels of obesity and hunger can occur in a country at any given time. How does undernourishment vary across the world? How has it changed over time?

    Micronutrient Deficiency – getting sufficient intake of calories (a requirement for obesity) does not guarantee an individual gets the full range of essential vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) for good health. Dietary diversity varies significantly across the world. How common is micronutrient deficiency and who is most at risk?

    Obesity is one of the leading risk factors for early death

    Obesity is responsible for 4.7 million premature deaths each year

    Obesity is one of the world’s largest health problems – one that has shifted from being a problem in rich countries, to one that spans all income levels.

    The Global Burden of Disease is a major global study on the causes and risk factors for death and disease published in the medical journal The Lancet.3 These estimates of the annual number of deaths attributed to a wide range of risk factors are shown here. This chart is shown for the global total, but can be explored for any country or region using the “change country” toggle.

    Obesity – defined as having a high body-mass index – is a risk factor for several of the world’s leading causes of death, including heart disease, stroke, diabetes and various types of cancer.4 Obesity does not directly cause of any of these health impacts but can increase their likelihood of occurring. In the chart we see that it is one of the leading risk factors for death globally.

    According to the Global Burden of Disease study 4.7 million people died prematurely in 2017 as a result of obesity. To put this into context: this was close to four times the number that died in road accidents, and close to five times the number that died from HIV/AIDS in 2017.5

    The global distribution of health impacts from obesity

    8% of global deaths are the result of obesity

    Globally, 8% of deaths in 2017 were the result of obesity – this represents an increase from 4.5% in 1990.

    This share varies significantly across the world. In the map here we see the share of deaths attributed to obesity across countries.

    Across many middle-income countries – particularly across Eastern Europe, Central Asia, North Africa, and Latin America – more than 15% of deaths were attributed to obesity in 2017. This most likely results from having a high prevalence of obesity, but poorer overall health and healthcare systems relatively to high-income countries with similarly high levels of obesity.

    In most high-income countries this share is in the range of 8 to 10%. This is about half the share of many middle-income countries. The large outliers among rich countries are Japan and South Korea: there only around 5% of premature deaths are attributed to obesity.

    Across low-income countries – especially across Sub-Saharan Africa – obesity accounts for less than 5% of deaths.

    There is a 10-fold difference in death rates from obesity across the world

    Death rates from obesity give us an accurate comparison of differences in its mortality impacts between countries and over time. In contrast to the share of deaths that we studied before, death rates are not influenced by how other causes or risk factors for death are changing.

    In the map here we see differences in death rates from obesity across the world. Globally, the death rate from obesity was around 60 per 100,000 in 2017.

    The overall picture does in fact match closely with the share of deaths: death rates are high across middle-income countries, especially across Eastern Europe, Central Asia, North Africa and Latin America. Rates there can be close to 200 per 100,000. This is more than ten times greater than rates at the bottom: Japan and South Korea tcf digital banking not working the lowest rates in the world at 14 and 20 deaths per 100,000, respectively.

    When we look at the relationship between death rates and the prevalence of obesity we find a positive one: death rates tend to be higher in countries where more people have obesity. But what we also notice is that for a given prevalence of obesity, death rates can self storage west valley city utah by a factor of four. 23% of Russian and Norwegian are obese, yet Russia’s death rate is four times higher. Clearly it’s not only the prevalence of obesity that plays a role but also other factors such as underlying health, other confounding risk factors (such as alcohol, drugs, smoking and other lifestyle factors) and healthcare systems.

    What share obesity in america adults are obese?

    13% of adults in the world are obese

    Globally, 13% of adults aged 18 years and older were obese in 2016.6 Obesity is defined as having a body-mass index equal to or greater than 30.

    In the map here we see the share of adults who are obese across countries. Overall we see a pattern roughly in line with prosperity: the prevalence of obesity tends to be higher in richer countries across Europe, North America, and Oceania. Obesity rates are much lower across South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa.

    More than one-in-three (36%) of adults in the United States were obese in 2016. In India this share was around 10 times lower (3.9%).

    The relationship between income and obesity generally holds true – as we see in the comparison here. But there are some notable exceptions. The small Pacific Island States stand out clearly: they have very high rates of obesity – 61% in Nauru and 55% in Palau – for their level of income. At the other end of the spectrum, Japan, South Korea and Singapore have very low levels of obesity for their level of income.

    Related charts – share of men and women that are obese.This map allows you to explore the share of men that are obese; this map allows you to explore this data for women across the world. This chart shows the comparison of obesity in men and women.

    What share of adults are overweight?

    39% of adults in the world are overweight or obese

    Globally, 39% of adults aged 18 years and older were overweight or obese in 2016.7 Being overweight is also defined based on body-mass index: the threshold value is lower than for obesity, with a BMI equal to or greater than 25.

    In the map here we see the share of adults who are overweight or obese across countries. The overall pattern is very closely aligned with the distribution of obesity across the world: the share of people who are overweight tends to be higher in richer countries and lower at lower incomes. What is of course true is that the share who are overweight (have a BMI greater than or equal to 25) is much higher than the share that are obese (a BMI of 30 or greater).

    In most high-income countries, around two-thirds of adults are overweight or obese. In the US, 70% are. At the lowest end of the scale, across South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa around 1-in-5 adults have a BMI greater than 25.

    Related charts – share of men and women that are overweightor obese. This map allows you to explore the share of men that are overweight or obese; this map allows you to explore this data for women across the world.

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is used to define the share of individuals that are underweight, in the ‘healthy’ range, overweight and obese.

    In the map here we see the distribution of mean BMI for adult women – aged 18 years and older – across the world. The global mean BMI for women in 2016 was 25 – just on the threshold from the WHO’s ‘healthy’ to ‘overweight’ classification. This has increased from a mean BMI of 22 – in wells fargo bank branch locations near me mid-range of ‘healthy’ – in the 1970s.

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is used to define the share of individuals that are underweight, in the ‘healthy’ range, overweight and obese.

    In the map here we see the distribution of mean BMI for adult men – aged 18 years and older – across the world. The global mean BMI obesity in america men in 2016 was 24.5 – just on the threshold from the WHO’s ‘healthy’ to ‘overweight’ classification. This has increased from a mean BMI of 21.7 – in the mid-range of ‘healthy’ – in the 1970s.

    Share of children that are overweight

    Obesity and overweight in children are also measured on the basis of body-mass-index (BMI). However, interpretation of BMI scores is treated differently for children and adolescents. Weight categories are defined in relation to WHO Growth Standards – a child is defined as overweight if their weight-for-height what time does pickup close at walmart more than two standard deviations from the median of the WHO Child Growth Standards.

    The World Health Organization reports that the share of children and adolescents aged 5-19 who are overweight or obese has risen from 4% in 1975 to around 18% in 2016.8

    In the map here we see the share of very young children – aged 2 to 4 years old – who are overweight based on WHO Child Growth Standards. In many countries as many as every third or fourth child is overweight.

    What are the drivers of obesity?

    At a basic level, weight gain – eventually leading to being overweight or obesity – is determined by a balance of energy.9 When we consume more energy – typically measured in kilocalories – than the energy expended to maintain life and carry out daily activiteswe gain weight. This is a called an energy surplus. When we consume less energy than we expend, we lose weight – this is an energy deficit.

    This means obesity in america are two potential drivers of the increase in obesity rates in recent decades: either an increase in kilocalorie intake i.e. we eat more; or we expend less energy in daily life through lower activity levels. Both elements are likely to play a role in the rise in obesity.

    To tackle obesity it’s likely that interventions which address both components: energy intake and expenditure are necessary.10

    Over the past century – but particularly over the past 50 years – the supply of calories has increased across the world. In the 1960s, the global average supply of calories (that is, the availability of calories for consumers to eat) was 2200kcal per person per day. By 2013 this had increased to 2800kcal.

    Across most countries, energy consumption has therefore increased. If this increase was not met with an increase in energy expenditure, weight gain and a rise in obesity rates is the result.

    In the chart here we see the relationship between the share of men that are overweight or obese (on the y-axis) versus the daily average supply of kilocalories per person. Overall we see a strong positive relationship: countries with higher rates of overweight tend to have a higher supply of calories.

    If you press ‘play’ on the interactive timeline you can see how this has changed for each country over time. Most countries move upwards and to the right: the supply central bank of kansas city prepaid visa calories has increased at the same time as obesity rates have increased.

    Definitions & Measurement

    How do we measure obesity in adults?

    The most common metric used for assessing the prevalence of obesity is the body mass index (BMI) scale. The World Health Organization define BMI as: “a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used to classify underweight, overweight and obesity in adults. It is defined as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in metres (kg/m2). For example, an adult who weighs 70kg and whose height is 1.75m will have a BMI of 22.9.”11

    Measured BMI values are used to define whether an individual is considered to be underweight, healthy, overweight or obese. The WHO defines these categories using the cut-off points in the table. For example, an individual with a BMI between 25.0 and 30.0 is considered to be ‘overweight’; a BMI greater than 30.0 is defined as ‘obese’.12

    Bmi classification

    How do we measure obesity in children and adolescents?

    The metric for measuring bodyweight in children and adolescents is also the body mass index (BMI) scale, measured in the same way described above. However, interpretation of BMI scores is treated differently for children and adolescents. Whilst there is no differentiation of weight categories in adults based on sex or age, these are important factors in the body composition of children. Factors such as age, gender and sexual maturation affect the BMI of younger individuals. For interpretation of individuals between the ages of 2 and 20 years old, BMI is measured relative to peers of the same age and gender, with weight classifications judged how to check status on capital one credit card shown in the table.13

    Bmi classification children

    Is BMI an appropriate measure of weight-related health?

    The merits of using BMI as an indicator of body fat and obesity are still contested. A key contention to the use of BMI indicators is that it provides a measure of body mass/weight rather than providing a direct measure of body fat. Whilst physicians continue to use BMI as a general indicator of weight-related health risks, there are some cases where its use should be considered more carefully14:

    • muscle mass can increase bodyweight; this means athletes or individuals with a high muscle mass percentage can be deemed overweight on the BMI scale, even if they have a low or healthy body fat percentage;
    • muscle and bone density tends to decline as we get older; this means that an older individual may have a higher percentage body fat than a younger individual with the same BMI;
    • women tend to have a higher body fat percentage than men for a given BMI.

    Physicians must therefore evaluate BMI results carefully on a individual basis. Despite outlier cases where BMI is an bank millennium login indicator of body fat, its use provides a reasonable measure of the risk of weight-related health factors across most individuals across the general population.

    NCD Risk Factor Collaboration

    • Data: Mean and distributions of body mass index (BMI), by country
    • Geographical coverage: Global- by country
    • Time span: 1975 onwards
    • Available at: http://www.ncdrisc.org/index.html

    WHO Global Database on Body Mass Index

    Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) Global Burden of Disease (GBDx) Data Tool

    Endnotes

    1. BMI is obesity in america as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in metres (kg/m2). For example, an adult who weighs 70kg and whose height is 1.75m will have a BMI of 22.9. This is calculated as 70kg / 1.752 = 70 / 3.06 = 22.9

    2. World Health Organization. BMI Classification. Global Database on Body Mass Index. Available online.

    3. The latest study can be found at the website of the Lancet here: TheLancet.com/GBD

      The 2017 study was published as GBD 2017 Risk Factor Collaborators – “Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017” and is online here.

    4. WHO (2018) – Fact sheet – Obesity and overweight. Updated February 2018. Online here.

    5. The Global Burden of Disease study estimates that around 1.2 million died in road accidents in 2017, and just under 1 million from HIV/AIDS.

    6. WHO (2018) – Fact sheet – Obesity and overweight. Updated February 2018. Online here.

    7. WHO (2018) – Fact sheet – Obesity and overweight. Updated February 2018. Online here.

    8. WHO (2018) – Fact sheet – Obesity and overweight. Donate food to food bank February 2018. Online here.

    9. Hall, K. D., Heymsfield, S. B., Kemnitz, J. W., Klein, S., Schoeller, D. A., & Speakman, J. R. (2012). Energy balance and its components: implications for body weight regulation. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition95(4), 989-994.

    10. Hill, J. O., Wyatt, H. R., & Peters, J. C. (2012). Energy balance and obesity. Circulation126(1), 126-132.

    11. This is calculated as 70kg / 1.752 = 70 / 3.06 = 22.9

    12. World Health Organization. BMI Classification. Global Database on Body Mass Index. Available online.

    13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Body Mass Index: Considerations for Practitioners. Available online.

    14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Body Mass Index: Considerations for Practitioners. Available online.

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    Our articles and data visualizations rely on work from many different people and organizations. When citing this entry, please also cite the underlying data sources. This entry can be cited as:

    Hannah Ritchie and Max Roser (2017) - "Obesity". Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved from: 'https://ourworldindata.org/obesity' [Online Resource]

    BibTeX citation

    @article{owidobesity, author = {Hannah Ritchie and Max Roser}, title = {Obesity}, journal = {Our World in Data}, year = {2017}, note = {https://ourworldindata.org/obesity} }
    Источник: https://ourworldindata.org/obesity

    Are We as Fat as We Think?

    In the last 33 years, not a single country has made serious progress in the fight against obesity. While in 1980, 857 million people worldwide were overweight or obese, by 2013 that number had more than doubled. Today, nearly one third of all living people — a whopping 2.1 billion — are either overweight or obese. These stats, including the graphics, come from a new analysis of 1,749 published studies on weight from around the world, published in the Lancet in May.

    The analysis showed that the United States is home to the highest number of overweight and obese people in the world. In the U.S., 70.9 percent of men and 61.9 percent of women are overweight or obese, compared to 38 percent of men and 36.9 percent of women worldwide. Our waistlines start growing early — 28.8 percent of boys and 29.7 percent of girls are overweight or obese in the U.S., compared to 14.2 percent of boys and 14.7 percent of girls worldwide.

    How to Lose 20 Pounds

    While we have the most overweight citizens in terms of sheer numbers, a few other countries actually have higher rates of obesity, including Egypt, Qatar and Samoa. Additionally, nearly two-thirds of all the obese people in the world live in developing countries as of 2013. That sounds like a lot, but that’s largely a symptom of how many more people live in the developing world, rather than a hopeful indicator that citizens of developed countries are losing weight.

    The researchers behind the analysis attribute the ballooning in overweight and obesity levels to increased calorie consumption, decreased exercise, and potential changes to the gut’s microbiome. Their research didn’t look to explain the causes, but they summarized their findings by writing that “increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity have been substantial, widespread, and have arisen over a short time.”

    Perhaps most frighteningly, the study shows that being overweight or obese caused 3.4 million deaths worldwide in 2010, accounting for 3.9 percent of years of life lost and 3.8 percent of disability-adjusted life-years. In comparison, 7.4 million people obesity in america of ischaemic heart disease in 2012, the leading cause of death, according to the World Health Organization, and 1.5 million died of HIV/AIDS. Hopefully these stats, putting obesity as a leading cause of death, will motivate individuals and countries to put in a stronger effort in trying to lose weight.

    Источник: https://www.everydayhealth.com/news/are-we-fat-think/

    Obesity in america -

    About 42% of American adults had obesity in 2017-2018, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data showed.

    Among adults ages 20 and older, 42.4% were identified as having a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher, while 9.2% had severe obesity, defined as a BMI of 40 or higher, reported Cheryl Fryar, MSPH, of the National Center for Health Statistics in Hyattsville, Maryland, and colleagues.

    Another 30.7% of American adults were overweight, with a BMI of 25 to 29.9.

    When the results were stratified by age, adults 40 to 59 saw the highest rates of obesity, with 45% of this age group with a BMI of 30 or higher. Middle-aged men had the highest prevalence of obesity, at a rate of 46%.

    Not surprisingly, the rates of obesity also varied according to ethnicity.

    Most notably, non-Hispanic Asian Americans consistently and overwhelmingly had the lowest rates of obesity, with only 18% and 17% of Asian men and women having a BMI over 30 in the most recent survey period.

    On the other hand, Mexican American adults had some of the highest rates, with 51% of men and 50% of women with obesity. Similarly, 41% of non-Hispanic Black men had obesity, as did 57% of Black adult women.

    "Although BMI is widely used as a measure of body fat, at a given BMI level, body fat may vary by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin," Fryar's group wrote. "In particular, research suggests that health risks may begin at a lower BMI among Asian persons compared with others."

    The current prevalence of obesity in the U.S. is in stark contrast to what the nation looked like several decades ago.

    In national data from the survey period of 1960-1962, only about 13.4% of adults had obesity and less than 1% had severe obesity. And during that same survey period, about 31.5% of American adults were considered overweight.

    From the early 1960s to today, however, the rates of obesity steadily increased each decade, doubling from 15% in 1976-1980 to 30.9% in 1999-2000.

    But since the turn of the century, the rise in obesity rates seemed to slow down a bit despite still increasing. For example, the only times that obesity rates actually fell in the past 60 years was in 2007-2008 and again in 2011-2012.

    Regarding children, the researchers found that 19.3% of Americans ages 2-19 had obesity, defined as a BMI at or above the 95th percentile on the growth chart. This included about 6.1% of kids who were identified as having severe obesity, measured as a BMI at or above 120% of the 95th percentile.

    In addition to this, another 16.1% of U.S. children were overweight during the 2017-2018 survey period, defined as at or above the 85th percentile on the sex-specific BMI-for-age growth chart.

    At this time, the rates of obesity were highest among teens: 21% of those ages 12-19 had obesity, with the rates for teen boys slightly higher than for teen girls (23% vs 20%).

    Similar to in adults, the obesity rates followed similar ethnic patterns among kids. As for boys, the highest rates of obesity were seen among those of Mexican American (29%) and Hispanic (28%) descent, whereas for girls, the highest rates of obesity were among Black (29%) and Mexican American (25%) children and adolescents.

    Again similar to the situation in adults, obesity in American kids followed a trajectory over the past several decades. In the 1971-1974 survey period, only 5% of U.S. kids had obesity, with only 1% of this subset having severe obesity; only 10% of kids were then overweight.

    • author['full_name']

      Kristen Monaco is a staff writer, focusing on endocrinology, psychiatry, and nephrology news. Based out of the New York City office, she’s worked at the company since 2015.

    Источник: https://www.medpagetoday.com/primarycare/obesity/90142

    Facts About Childhood Obesity

    Support Partnership for a Healthier America's work by making a donation. PHA was created to eliminate the nation’s childhood obesity crisis that is preventing many of our children from having a healthy future. While we have seen progress among preschool age children, we continue to face an enormous challenge: Approximately 17 percent of U.S. youth have obesity, and nearly one in three children and adolescents are either overweight or have obesity.

    No one is immune to the risk of growing up at an unhealthy weight. Childhood obesity cuts across all communities and all categories of race, ethnicity, and family income. Alarmingly, the obesity problem strikes at an early age, with researchers estimating a staggering 9.4 percent of children ages 2 to 5 already have obesity. The obesity rate for children ages 6 to 11 has also more than quadrupled during the past 40 years – from 4.2 to 17.4 percent – as well as tripled for adolescents ages 12 to 19, climbing from 4.6 to 20.6 percent, according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Not only do childhood health costs exacerbate the problem, it’s worth noting that many weight-related health issues can turn into chronic conditions (such as diabetes and heart disease) as children grow older and dramatically cut short their life expectancy.

    The Partnership for a Healthier America (PHA) is devoted to working with the private sector to ensure the health of our nation’s youth by solving the childhood obesity crisis. In fact, this crisis marks the first time in our history that a generation of American children may face a shorter expected lifespan than their parents. Recent research finds those most affected are lower-income individuals, African-American, Latinos, American Indians and those living in the southern part of the United States. Many live in communities with half as many supermarkets as wealthier neighborhoods. Communities with high levels of poverty are also significantly less likely to have safe places for children to play.

    Key Facts:

    • In 2011-2014, 24.4 percent of African-American adolescent girls were obese.
    • Black and Latino youths have substantially higher rates of overweight and obesity than do their White peers. In 2011 and 2012, 22 percent of Latino children and 20 percent of black children had obesity compared to 14 percent of white children.
    • An overweight adolescent has a 70 percent chance of becoming an overweight or obese adult.
    • 6- to 8-year-olds with obesity are approximately 10 times more likely to become obese adults than those with a lower body mass index.
    • A third of the children born in 2000 in this country will develop diabetes during their lifetime.
    • Since 1980, the obesity prevalence among children and adolescents has almost tripled.
    • More than one in four 17- to 24-year-olds in the United States are now too heavy to serve in the military, a development that retired military leaders say endangers national security.
    • Children with obesity are already demonstrating cardiovascular risk factors typically not seen until adulthood.
    • Children and adolescents with obesity have a greater risk of social and psychological problems, such as discrimination and poor self-esteem, which can continue into adulthood.
    • Children with weight issues are more likely to miss school and repeat a grade than children who are at a healthy weight.
    • Children with obesity have three times more healthcare expenditures than children at healthy weights, costing an estimated $14 billion every year.
    Источник: https://www.ahealthieramerica.org/articles/facts-about-childhood-obesity-102

    Obesity Rates Continue to Rise Among Adults in the US

    The rates of American adults with obesity have continued to increase over the past decade according to researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In the years between 2007-2008 and 2015-2016, the report says the rates of obesity rose significantly among adults, from 33.7% to 39.6%. Rates of severe obesity increased during this time from 5.7% to 7.7%. The report was published online March 23, 2018 as a research letter in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

    The report defines obesity as having a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater and defines severe obesity as having a BMI of 40 or greater. For example, an adult who is 5’ 9” tall and weighs 203 pounds has a BMI of 30. An adult who is 5’ 9” tall and weighs 271 pounds has a BMI of 40. A healthy weight for this height, according to the CDC, is between 125 and 168 pounds.

    The report shows an overall trend toward a slight increase in obesity rates among youth ages 2 to 19, but this increase is not steep enough to be statistically significant. Rates of obesity among youth rose from 16.8% during 2007-2008 to 18.5% during 2015-2016. For youth, the researchers defined obesity as a BMI in the 95th percentile or above. They defined severe obesity as a BMI of at least 120% of the 95th percentile. BMI is calculated differently for children than it is for adults. For example, a 10-year-old boy of average height (4’ 8”) who weighs 102 pounds would fall into the 95th percentile for BMI, and would fit the definition for obesity.

    The researchers made their calculations using data from 27,449 adults and 16,875 youth enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Obesity and cancer

    People with obesity are at higher risk than people of healthy weight to develop many serious diseases and health conditions, including heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain cancers.

    Being overweight is clearly linked with cancers of the breast (in women past menopause), colon and rectum, endometrium, esophagus, kidney, and pancreas. There is also evidence that excess weight may contribute to cancers of the gallbladder, liver, cervix, and ovary, as well as non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and aggressive forms of prostate cancer. Excess body weight is thought to be responsible for about 8% of all cancers in the United States, as well as about 7% of all cancer deaths.

    If you are overweight, consider making some lifestyle changes. Studies show that even a small weight loss – 10% of your current weight – lowers the risk of several diseases.

    The American Cancer Society recommends that people try to get to and stay at a healthy weight throughout life by eating a healthy diet and getting enough physical activity. A healthy diet includes lots of vegetables and fruits, whole grains, beans, and lower calorie beverages while limiting high-calorie foods, between-meal snacks, and added sugars.

    The American Cancer Society also recommends that adults get at least 150 minutes of moderate intensity or 75 minutes of vigorous intensity activity each week (or a combination of these), preferably spread throughout the week. Children and teens should get at least 1 hour of moderate or vigorous intensity activity each day, with vigorous activity on at least 3 days each week. Moderate activity is about the level of a brisk walk, while vigorous activity increases your breathing and heart rate, and makes you sweat.

    It's also important to limit the amount of time during the day you spend sitting or lying down. Long hours of sedentary behavior have been linked to diabetes, heart disease, some types of cancer, and shorter life.

    American Cancer Society research

    The American Cancer Society (ACS) is currently funding almost $12 million worth of grants for obesity-related research in labs at research centers across the US. The studies are wide ranging, including how chemical processes in the body lead to obesity, the impact of obesity on cancer risk, progression, and survival, and ways to encourage lifestyle behaviors known to reduce obesity in adults and children.

    In addition, ACS researchers are conducting their own studies about excess body weight and the links to cancer. Many of these studies rely on data from the Cancer Prevention Study II, a study of approximately 1.2 million American men and women which began in 1982. ACS researchers also collaborate on other studies here in the US and around the globe to find out more about the factors that lead to excess weight gain and which cancer types are linked to excess weight.

    American Cancer Society news stories are copyrighted material and are not intended to be used as press releases. For reprint requests, please see our Content Usage Policy.

    Источник: https://www.cancer.org/latest-news/obesity-rates-continue-to-rise-among-adults-in-the-us.html

    Obesity

    Obesity is most commonly measured using the body mass index (BMI) scale. The World Health Organization define BMI as: “a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used to classify underweight, overweight and obesity in adults.1

    BMI values are used to define whether an individual is considered to be underweight, healthy, overweight or obese. The WHO defines these categories using the cut-off points: an individual with a BMI between 25.0 and 30.0 is considered to be ‘overweight’; a BMI greater than 30.0 is defined as ‘obese’.2

    Related research entries

    Food per person – food availability has increased significantly in most countries across the world. How does the supply of calories, protein and fats vary between countries? How has this changed over time?

    Hunger and Undernourishment – obesity rates have now overtaken hunger rates globally. But it remains the case that high levels of obesity and hunger can occur in a country at any given time. How does undernourishment vary across the world? How has it changed over time?

    Micronutrient Deficiency – getting sufficient intake of calories (a requirement for obesity) does not guarantee an individual gets the full range of essential vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) for good health. Dietary diversity varies significantly across the world. How common is micronutrient deficiency and who is most at risk?

    Obesity is one of the leading risk factors for early death

    Obesity is responsible for 4.7 million premature deaths each year

    Obesity is one of the world’s largest health problems – one that has shifted from being a problem in rich countries, to one that spans all income levels.

    The Global Burden of Disease is a major global study on the causes and risk factors for death and disease published in the medical journal The Lancet.3 These estimates of the annual number of deaths attributed to a wide range of risk factors are shown here. This chart is shown for the global total, but can be explored for any country or region using the “change country” toggle.

    Obesity – defined as having a high body-mass index – is a risk factor for several of the world’s leading causes of death, including heart disease, stroke, diabetes and various types of cancer.4 Obesity does not directly cause of any of these health impacts but can increase their likelihood of occurring. In the chart we see that it is one of the leading risk factors for death globally.

    According to the Global Burden of Disease study 4.7 million people died prematurely in 2017 as a result of obesity. To put this into context: this was close to four times the number that died in road accidents, and close to five times the number that died from HIV/AIDS in 2017.5

    The global distribution of health impacts from obesity

    8% of global deaths are the result of obesity

    Globally, 8% of deaths in 2017 were the result of obesity – this represents an increase from 4.5% in 1990.

    This share varies significantly across the world. In the map here we see the share of deaths attributed to obesity across countries.

    Across many middle-income countries – particularly across Eastern Europe, Central Asia, North Africa, and Latin America – more than 15% of deaths were attributed to obesity in 2017. This most likely results from having a high prevalence of obesity, but poorer overall health and healthcare systems relatively to high-income countries with similarly high levels of obesity.

    In most high-income countries this share is in the range of 8 to 10%. This is about half the share of many middle-income countries. The large outliers among rich countries are Japan and South Korea: there only around 5% of premature deaths are attributed to obesity.

    Across low-income countries – especially across Sub-Saharan Africa – obesity accounts for less than 5% of deaths.

    There is a 10-fold difference in death rates from obesity across the world

    Death rates from obesity give us an accurate comparison of differences in its mortality impacts between countries and over time. In contrast to the share of deaths that we studied before, death rates are not influenced by how other causes or risk factors for death are changing.

    In the map here we see differences in death rates from obesity across the world. Globally, the death rate from obesity was around 60 per 100,000 in 2017.

    The overall picture does in fact match closely with the share of deaths: death rates are high across middle-income countries, especially across Eastern Europe, Central Asia, North Africa and Latin America. Rates there can be close to 200 per 100,000. This is more than ten times greater than rates at the bottom: Japan and South Korea have the lowest rates in the world at 14 and 20 deaths per 100,000, respectively.

    When we look at the relationship between death rates and the prevalence of obesity we find a positive one: death rates tend to be higher in countries where more people have obesity. But what we also notice is that for a given prevalence of obesity, death rates can vary by a factor of four. 23% of Russian and Norwegian are obese, yet Russia’s death rate is four times higher. Clearly it’s not only the prevalence of obesity that plays a role but also other factors such as underlying health, other confounding risk factors (such as alcohol, drugs, smoking and other lifestyle factors) and healthcare systems.

    What share of adults are obese?

    13% of adults in the world are obese

    Globally, 13% of adults aged 18 years and older were obese in 2016.6 Obesity is defined as having a body-mass index equal to or greater than 30.

    In the map here we see the share of adults who are obese across countries. Overall we see a pattern roughly in line with prosperity: the prevalence of obesity tends to be higher in richer countries across Europe, North America, and Oceania. Obesity rates are much lower across South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa.

    More than one-in-three (36%) of adults in the United States were obese in 2016. In India this share was around 10 times lower (3.9%).

    The relationship between income and obesity generally holds true – as we see in the comparison here. But there are some notable exceptions. The small Pacific Island States stand out clearly: they have very high rates of obesity – 61% in Nauru and 55% in Palau – for their level of income. At the other end of the spectrum, Japan, South Korea and Singapore have very low levels of obesity for their level of income.

    Related charts – share of men and women that are obese.This map allows you to explore the share of men that are obese; this map allows you to explore this data for women across the world. This chart shows the comparison of obesity in men and women.

    What share of adults are overweight?

    39% of adults in the world are overweight or obese

    Globally, 39% of adults aged 18 years and older were overweight or obese in 2016.7 Being overweight is also defined based on body-mass index: the threshold value is lower than for obesity, with a BMI equal to or greater than 25.

    In the map here we see the share of adults who are overweight or obese across countries. The overall pattern is very closely aligned with the distribution of obesity across the world: the share of people who are overweight tends to be higher in richer countries and lower at lower incomes. What is of course true is that the share who are overweight (have a BMI greater than or equal to 25) is much higher than the share that are obese (a BMI of 30 or greater).

    In most high-income countries, around two-thirds of adults are overweight or obese. In the US, 70% are. At the lowest end of the scale, across South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa around 1-in-5 adults have a BMI greater than 25.

    Related charts – share of men and women that are overweightor obese. This map allows you to explore the share of men that are overweight or obese; this map allows you to explore this data for women across the world.

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is used to define the share of individuals that are underweight, in the ‘healthy’ range, overweight and obese.

    In the map here we see the distribution of mean BMI for adult women – aged 18 years and older – across the world. The global mean BMI for women in 2016 was 25 – just on the threshold from the WHO’s ‘healthy’ to ‘overweight’ classification. This has increased from a mean BMI of 22 – in the mid-range of ‘healthy’ – in the 1970s.

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is used to define the share of individuals that are underweight, in the ‘healthy’ range, overweight and obese.

    In the map here we see the distribution of mean BMI for adult men – aged 18 years and older – across the world. The global mean BMI for men in 2016 was 24.5 – just on the threshold from the WHO’s ‘healthy’ to ‘overweight’ classification. This has increased from a mean BMI of 21.7 – in the mid-range of ‘healthy’ – in the 1970s.

    Share of children that are overweight

    Obesity and overweight in children are also measured on the basis of body-mass-index (BMI). However, interpretation of BMI scores is treated differently for children and adolescents. Weight categories are defined in relation to WHO Growth Standards – a child is defined as overweight if their weight-for-height is more than two standard deviations from the median of the WHO Child Growth Standards.

    The World Health Organization reports that the share of children and adolescents aged 5-19 who are overweight or obese has risen from 4% in 1975 to around 18% in 2016.8

    In the map here we see the share of very young children – aged 2 to 4 years old – who are overweight based on WHO Child Growth Standards. In many countries as many as every third or fourth child is overweight.

    What are the drivers of obesity?

    At a basic level, weight gain – eventually leading to being overweight or obesity – is determined by a balance of energy.9 When we consume more energy – typically measured in kilocalories – than the energy expended to maintain life and carry out daily activites , we gain weight. This is a called an energy surplus. When we consume less energy than we expend, we lose weight – this is an energy deficit.

    This means there are two potential drivers of the increase in obesity rates in recent decades: either an increase in kilocalorie intake i.e. we eat more; or we expend less energy in daily life through lower activity levels. Both elements are likely to play a role in the rise in obesity.

    To tackle obesity it’s likely that interventions which address both components: energy intake and expenditure are necessary.10

    Over the past century – but particularly over the past 50 years – the supply of calories has increased across the world. In the 1960s, the global average supply of calories (that is, the availability of calories for consumers to eat) was 2200kcal per person per day. By 2013 this had increased to 2800kcal.

    Across most countries, energy consumption has therefore increased. If this increase was not met with an increase in energy expenditure, weight gain and a rise in obesity rates is the result.

    In the chart here we see the relationship between the share of men that are overweight or obese (on the y-axis) versus the daily average supply of kilocalories per person. Overall we see a strong positive relationship: countries with higher rates of overweight tend to have a higher supply of calories.

    If you press ‘play’ on the interactive timeline you can see how this has changed for each country over time. Most countries move upwards and to the right: the supply of calories has increased at the same time as obesity rates have increased.

    Definitions & Measurement

    How do we measure obesity in adults?

    The most common metric used for assessing the prevalence of obesity is the body mass index (BMI) scale. The World Health Organization define BMI as: “a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used to classify underweight, overweight and obesity in adults. It is defined as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in metres (kg/m2). For example, an adult who weighs 70kg and whose height is 1.75m will have a BMI of 22.9.”11

    Measured BMI values are used to define whether an individual is considered to be underweight, healthy, overweight or obese. The WHO defines these categories using the cut-off points in the table. For example, an individual with a BMI between 25.0 and 30.0 is considered to be ‘overweight’; a BMI greater than 30.0 is defined as ‘obese’.12

    Bmi classification

    How do we measure obesity in children and adolescents?

    The metric for measuring bodyweight in children and adolescents is also the body mass index (BMI) scale, measured in the same way described above. However, interpretation of BMI scores is treated differently for children and adolescents. Whilst there is no differentiation of weight categories in adults based on sex or age, these are important factors in the body composition of children. Factors such as age, gender and sexual maturation affect the BMI of younger individuals. For interpretation of individuals between the ages of 2 and 20 years old, BMI is measured relative to peers of the same age and gender, with weight classifications judged as shown in the table.13

    Bmi classification children

    Is BMI an appropriate measure of weight-related health?

    The merits of using BMI as an indicator of body fat and obesity are still contested. A key contention to the use of BMI indicators is that it provides a measure of body mass/weight rather than providing a direct measure of body fat. Whilst physicians continue to use BMI as a general indicator of weight-related health risks, there are some cases where its use should be considered more carefully14:

    • muscle mass can increase bodyweight; this means athletes or individuals with a high muscle mass percentage can be deemed overweight on the BMI scale, even if they have a low or healthy body fat percentage;
    • muscle and bone density tends to decline as we get older; this means that an older individual may have a higher percentage body fat than a younger individual with the same BMI;
    • women tend to have a higher body fat percentage than men for a given BMI.

    Physicians must therefore evaluate BMI results carefully on a individual basis. Despite outlier cases where BMI is an inappropriate indicator of body fat, its use provides a reasonable measure of the risk of weight-related health factors across most individuals across the general population.

    NCD Risk Factor Collaboration

    • Data: Mean and distributions of body mass index (BMI), by country
    • Geographical coverage: Global- by country
    • Time span: 1975 onwards
    • Available at: http://www.ncdrisc.org/index.html

    WHO Global Database on Body Mass Index

    Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) Global Burden of Disease (GBDx) Data Tool

    Endnotes

    1. BMI is defined as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in metres (kg/m2). For example, an adult who weighs 70kg and whose height is 1.75m will have a BMI of 22.9. This is calculated as 70kg / 1.752 = 70 / 3.06 = 22.9

    2. World Health Organization. BMI Classification. Global Database on Body Mass Index. Available online.

    3. The latest study can be found at the website of the Lancet here: TheLancet.com/GBD

      The 2017 study was published as GBD 2017 Risk Factor Collaborators – “Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017” and is online here.

    4. WHO (2018) – Fact sheet – Obesity and overweight. Updated February 2018. Online here.

    5. The Global Burden of Disease study estimates that around 1.2 million died in road accidents in 2017, and just under 1 million from HIV/AIDS.

    6. WHO (2018) – Fact sheet – Obesity and overweight. Updated February 2018. Online here.

    7. WHO (2018) – Fact sheet – Obesity and overweight. Updated February 2018. Online here.

    8. WHO (2018) – Fact sheet – Obesity and overweight. Updated February 2018. Online here.

    9. Hall, K. D., Heymsfield, S. B., Kemnitz, J. W., Klein, S., Schoeller, D. A., & Speakman, J. R. (2012). Energy balance and its components: implications for body weight regulation. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition95(4), 989-994.

    10. Hill, J. O., Wyatt, H. R., & Peters, J. C. (2012). Energy balance and obesity. Circulation126(1), 126-132.

    11. This is calculated as 70kg / 1.752 = 70 / 3.06 = 22.9

    12. World Health Organization. BMI Classification. Global Database on Body Mass Index. Available online.

    13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Body Mass Index: Considerations for Practitioners. Available online.

    14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Body Mass Index: Considerations for Practitioners. Available online.

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    Hannah Ritchie and Max Roser (2017) - "Obesity". Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved from: 'https://ourworldindata.org/obesity' [Online Resource]

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    @article{owidobesity, author = {Hannah Ritchie and Max Roser}, title = {Obesity}, journal = {Our World in Data}, year = {2017}, note = {https://ourworldindata.org/obesity} }
    Источник: https://ourworldindata.org/obesity

    Section One - Continued
    OBESITY AND MORTALITY

    According to the National Institutes of Health, obesity and overweight together are the second leading cause of preventable death in the United States, close behind tobacco use (3). An estimated 300,000 deaths per year are due to the obesity epidemic (57).

    The results of two extensive studies examining obesity-attributable deaths in the United States were published in 1999. Allison, Fontaine, and Manson et al., reporting in the Journal of the American Medical Society, used data from a number of prospective cohort studies, including the Alameda Community Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, the Tecumseh Community Health Study, the American Cancer Society’s Cancer Prevention Study I, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study, and the Nurses’ Health Study, to estimate the number of deaths attributable to obesity in the United States on an annual basis (66). Their initial analyses, which examined deaths occurring among persons aged 18 and older in 1991, were adjusted only for age, sex, and smoking status. The weight categories used were overweight (BMI of 25-29.9), obese (BMI of 30-35), and severely obese (BMI >35).

    Using data on all eligible subjects from all six studies, Allison et al. estimated that 280,184 obesity-attributable deaths occurred in the U.S. annually. When risk ratios calculated for nonsmokers and never-smokers were applied to the entire population (assuming these ratios to produce the best estimate for all subjects, regardless of smoking status, i.e., that obesity would exert the same deleterious effects across all smoking categories), the mean estimate for deaths due to obesity was 324,940.

    Additional analyses were performed controlling for prevalent chronic disease at baseline using data from the CPS1 and NHS. After controlling for preexisting disease, the mean annual number of obesity-attributable deaths was estimated to be 374,239 (330,324 based on CPS1 data and 418,154 based on NHS data).

    Calle, Thun et al. selected their study subjects from over one million participants in the Cancer Prevention Study II, a prospective study of mortality among adults in the U.S. begun by the American Cancer Society in 1982 (67). Calle et al. examined deaths occurring between 1982 and 1996 among four cohorts: (1) current or former smokers with no history of disease3, (2) current or former smokers with a history of disease, (3) nonsmokers with no history of disease, and (4) nonsmokers with a history of disease. Weight categories were normal range (18.5-24.9), grade 1 overweight (25.0-29.9), grade 2 overweight (30.0-39.9), and grade 3 overweight (40.0+). All cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, and cancer mortality were examined.

    The lowest mortality rates from all causes were found among study subjects having a BMI of between 23.5-24.9 for men and 22.0-23.4 for women. The risk of mortality increased with increasing BMI at all ages and for all categories of death. The strongest association between obesity and death from all causes was found among study subjects who had never smoked and had no history of disease, with the highest rates among the heaviest men and women, i.e., those with a BMI of 40+. The relative risk (RR) was 2.68 among men and 1.89 among women, compared with the reference groups (a BMI of 23.5-24.9 among men and 22.0-23.4 among women). This association was stronger in whites than among blacks.

    Obesity was associated with higher mortality rates for both cardiovascular disease and cancer. BMI was most strongly associated with cardiovascular disease mortality among men (RR=2.90), but significantly increased risks of CVD death were found at all BMIs of greater than 25.0 in women and 26.5 in men. The findings showed an increase of 40% to 80% in risk of dying from cancer among both men and women in the highest weight categories.

    Calle et al.’s study supports the need for further research to ascertain the differences in the effect of obesity on mortality among the black population, especially among black women. Their data also support the use of a single recommended range of body weight throughout life.

    An earlier (1995) study by Manson, Willett, and Stamfer et al. examined data from the Nurses’ Health Study, looking at 4,726 deaths occurring from 1976 through 1992, 881 from cardiovascular disease, 2,586 from cancer, and 1,259 from other causes (68). A direct association was observed between BMI and mortality among women who had never smoked. Using a BMI of <19.0 as the reference group (relative risk [RR]=1.0), women with BMIs of 19.0-21.9 and 22.0-24.9 had a RR of 1.2; women with a BMI of 25.0-26.9 had a RR of 1.3; women with a BMI of 27.0-28.9 had a RR of 1.6; those with a BMI of 29.0-31.9 had a RR of 2.1; and those with a BMI of >32.0 had a RR of 2.2. Among never smokers, women with a BMI of >32 had a RR of 4.1 of dying from cardiovascular disease and a RR of 2.1 of dying from cancer.

    3Cancer (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer), heart disease, stroke, respiratory disease, current illness of any type, or a weight loss of at least 10 pounds in the preceding year.

    Continue with Section One: